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Wiley Online Library : Cladistics
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June 24, 2015
The subfamily Dysponetinae (Annelida, Chrysopetalidae) was proposed by Aguado et al. (Cladistics 29, 610) based on a phylogenetic analysis including morphological and molecular information. However, as a differential diagnosis of the new subfamily, as required by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, was not included, the name was not made available. A diagnosis of the subfamily is proposed herein to correct this oversight.
June 21, 2015
A phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological characters of Herminium (Orchidaceae, Orchideae): evolutionary relationships, taxonomy, and patterns of character evolution
The first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the orchid genus Herminium and its allies is presented, based on seven molecular markers (nuclear internal transcribed spacer, Xdh, chloroplast matK, psaB, psbA-trnH, rbcL and trnL-F) and 37 morphological characters. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Herminium as currently delimited is paraphyletic and that several genera are deeply nested within it. Based on parsimony analysis of total evidence, the generic circumscription of Herminium is expanded to include Androcorys, Bhutanthera, Frigidorchis and Porolabium. Apomorphic and plesiomorphic character states are identified for various clades recovered in this study. A few species currently wrongly assigned to Peristylus and Platanthera are here included in Herminium. All necessary new combinations are made.
June 14, 2015
Phylogenetic position of the house dust mite subfamily Guatemalichinae (Acariformes: Pyroglyphidae) based on integrated molecular and morphological analyses and different measures of support
Based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses (18S, 28S, EF1-α, SRP54, HSP70, CO1, 10 860 nt aligned), we show that the house dust mite subfamily Guatemalichinae is nested within non-onychalgine pyroglyphid mites and forms the sister group to the genus Sturnophagoides (bootstrap support 100, posterior probability 1.0). Because high bootstrap support values may be misleading in the presence of incongruence, we evaluate robustness of the Guatemalichinae+Sturnophagoides clade using: (1) internode certainty indices to estimate the frequency of conflicting bipartitions in maximum-likelihood bootstrap trees, (ii) consensus networks to investigate conflict among different loci; and (iii) statistical hypothesis testing based on information theory, both multi-scale and regular bootstrap. Results suggest that this grouping is very well supported given the data. The molecular analyses were integrated with detailed morphological study using scanning electron and light microscopy. We suggest that the subfamilial status of Guatemalichinae should be reconsidered, and this lineage should be placed within the subfamily Dermatophagoidinae. The latter subfamily is currently accepted in the literature as a monophyletic group but was here inferred as paraphyletic and was not supported by any morphological synapomorphy. The paraphyly involved the most species-rich and medically important genus, Dermatophagoides. Our findings suggest the need for a comprehensive revision of the higher-level relationships of pyroglyphid house dust mites using both DNA sequences and morphology coupled with a broad taxonomic sampling.
May 12, 2015
A protocol for the delimitation of areas of endemism and the historical regionalization of the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest using harvestmen distribution data
The concept of areas of endemism (AoEs) has rarely been discussed in the literature, even though the use of methods to ascertain them has recently increased. We introduce a grid-based protocol for delimiting AoEs using alternative criteria for the recognition of AoEs that are empirically tested with harvestmen species distributions in the Atlantic Rain Forest. Our data, comprising 778 records of 123 species, were analysed using parsimony analysis of endemicity and endemicity analysis on four different grids (two cell sizes and two cell placements). Additionally, we employed six qualitative combined criteria for the delimitation of AoEs and applied them to the results of the numerical analyses in a new protocol to objectively delimit AoEs. Twelve AoEs (the most detailed delimitation of the Atlantic Rain Forest so far) were delimited, partially corroborating the main divisions previously established in the literature. The results obtained with the grid-based methods were contradictory and were plagued by artefacts, probably due to the existence of different endemism patterns in one cell or to a biogeographical barrier set obliquely to latitudinal and longitudinal axes, for example. Consequently, the congruence patterns found by them should not be considered alone; qualitative characteristics of species and clade distributions and abiotic factors should be evaluated together. Mountain slopes are the main regions of endemism, and large river valleys are the main divisions. Refuges, marine transgressions and tectonic activity seem to have played an important role in the evolution of the Atlantic Rain Forest.
May 5, 2015
April 16, 2015
A phylogenetic analysis of the early branching lineages of the monocotyledons is performed using data from two plastid genes (rbcL and matK), five mitochondrial genes (atp1, ccmB, cob, mttB and nad5) and morphology. The complete matrix includes 93 terminals representing Acorus, the 14 families currently recognized within Alismatales, and numerous lineages of monocotyledons and other angiosperms. Total evidence analysis results in an almost completely resolved strict consensus tree, but all data partitions, genomic as well as morphological, are incongruent. The effects of RNA editing and potentially processed paralogous sequences are explored and discussed. Despite a decrease in incongruence length differences after exclusion of edited sites, the major data partitions remain significantly incongruent. The 14 families of Alismatales are all found to be monophyletic, but Acorus is found to be included in Alismatales rather than being the sister group to all other monocotyledons. The placement is strongly supported by the mitochondrial data, atp1 in particular, but it cannot be explained as an artifact caused by patterns of editing or by sampling of processed paralogues.
April 1, 2015
Molossidae is a large (roughly 100 species) pantropically distributed clade of swift aerially insectivorous bats for which the phylogeny remains relatively unknown and little studied compared with other speciose groups of bats. We investigated phylogenetic relationships among 62 species, representing all extant molossid genera and most of the subgenera, using 102 morphological characters from the skull, dentition, postcrania, external morphology, tongue, and penis, based on direct observation and literature reports. Both parsimony and Bayesian analyses were used in phylogenetic reconstruction. Our analysis supports two main clades of molossids, both of which mingle Old World and New World taxa. One clade is comprised of Mormopterus,Platymops, Sauromys, Neoplatymops, Molossops, Cynomops, Cheiromeles, Molossus, and Promops. The other clade includes Tadarida, Otomops, Nyctinomops, Eumops, Chaerephon, and Mops. The position of Myopterus with respect to these two groups is unclear. As in other recent analyses, we find that several genera do not appear to be monophyletic (e.g. Tadarida, Chaerephon, and Molossops sensu lato). We recommend that the subgenera of Molossops sensu lato and Austronomus be recognized at the generic level. We conclude that much more data are needed to investigate lower level problems (generic monophyly and relationships within genera) and to resolve the higher-level branching pattern of the family.
The Genealogical World of Phylogenetic Networks
BMC Evolutionary Biology