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October 15, 2014
The International Society for Evolution, Medicine, & Public Health Society will be hold its inaugural meeting March 19-21 in Tempe, Arizona. Registration and abstract submission are open now. Early registrants receive a substantial discount, and all fees are refundable until February 15th. This meeting will bring together scientists, scholars, teachers, clinicians, and students in the evolution and medicine community to share ideas and create new connections that will advance the field. Students and clinicians with an interest in the field are especially welcome. This meeting is co-sponsored by The Society and the Arizona State University Center for Evolution & Medicine. Full information on the conference site http://bit.ly/1vaNFak Registration at http://bit.ly/1vaNHis Plenary Speakers include Harvey Fineberg, Institute of Medicine, Stephen Stearns, Yale University, Barbara Natterson-Horowitz, UCLA, Sir Peter Gluckman, University of Auckland, Ann Demogines, (Omenn Award Winner) BioFire Diagnostics, Ruslan Medzhitov, Yale Other confirmed speakers include Carl Bergstrom, University of Washington, Sudhir Kumar, Temple University, Daniel Lieberman, Harvard University , Gilbert Omenn, University of Michigan, Allen Rodrigo, NESCent, Frank Rhli, University of Zurich, Elizabeth Uhl, University of Georgia, Robert Perlman, University of Chicago, Ajit Varki, UC San Diego, Gillian Bentley, Durham University, Bernard Crespi, Simon Fraser University, David Haig, Harvard University, Andrew Read, Penn State University, Mark Schwartz, New York University, Marlene Zuk, University of Minnesota, Cynthia Beall, Case Western University, Charles Nunn, Duke University, Randolph Nesse, Arizona State University, Carlo Maley, UCSF, Athena Aktipis, UCSF, Wenda Trevathan, New Mexico State University, Matthew Keller, University of Colorado, Boulder, Lewis Wolpert, University College London, Joshua Schiffman, University of Utah, Joseph Alcock, University of New Mexico, Kathleen Barnes, Johns Hopkins University, Fabio Zampieri, University of Padua, Italy, Michael Ruse, Florida State University, Detlev Ganten, World Health Summit, Berlin, Grazyna Jasienska, Jagellonian University, Poland, Beverly Strassmann, University of Michigan, Daniel Blumstein, UCLS, Mark Flinn, University of Missouri, and Koos Boomsma, University of Copenhagen. Wednesday on March 18 Noon-5 PM is a pre-meeting for Directors of Evolutionary Medicine Programs, Centers, and Institutes, and those who are considering organizing such units. The event, organized by Randolph Nesse, Gillian Bentley, Daniel Blumstein, Barbara Natterson-Horowitz, and Frank Rhle, will provide an informal opportunity to share strategies and resources and coordinate efforts. Randolph Nesse ASU Center for Evolution & Medicine http://bit.ly/1mP32pF email@example.com via Gmail
The course “Integrative taxonomy and taxonomic expertise in the framework of the DNA-barcoding initiative” will be from the 9th to the 13th of March, 2015 at the MNHN of Paris, France. This course is also part of the DEST- Taxonomy training program (http://bit.ly/1w1N7F5). The course is in English. To register, please fill the form on the website of the course (http://bit.ly/1z9pjnb) before the the 4th of January, 2015. If you have any question, please contact: Line Le Gall (firstname.lastname@example.org) Nicolas Puillandre (email@example.com) Sarah Samadi (firstname.lastname@example.org) Nicolas PUILLANDRE, McF MNHN, ISyEB +33 (0)1 40 79 31 73 email@example.com via Gmail
October 14, 2014
Postdoctoral position: Genetics of adaptation to fluctuating environments Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, University of Jyvskyl, Finland. Finnish Academy funded post doc position for two years is available (from 1.1.2015) in a project led by Tarmo Ketola (Academy research fellow, PhD). The project concentrates mapping genetic changes associated with adaptation to fluctuating thermal environments vs. adaptation to constant environments (see: Ketola et al. 2013 in Evolution67: 2936-2944). This part of the project is conducted in close collaboration with Dr. Juan Galarza. Applicant must possess excellent programming skills and demonstrated experience in the use of next-generation data and a PhD from the relevant field. Backgroundin evolutionary biology isvery much appreciated, as applicant is also expected to develop independent research questions utilizing the genetic data, for example on genetic and environmental canalization and on phenotypic plasticity. Since sequenced bacterial strains (Serratia marcescens) are stored in suspended animation they can be easily used for additional experiments. The salary ranges from ca. 3000-3500 euro / month, based on the personal qualifications. Note that starting date is negotiable and PhD must be obtained before the starting date. Deadline for applications is 30. 10. 2014. (Please send CV, expression of interest, and contact details of 3 persons who can provide references, as a single pdf-file) For enquiries and submitting the applications contact: Tarmo Ketola tketola(at)jyu.fi http://bit.ly/1z9lQFe Informative/relevant webpages: http://bit.ly/1w1KG5f http://bit.ly/1awsze5 http://on.fb.me/1z9lRZV http://bit.ly/1w1KG5h firstname.lastname@example.org via Gmail
Course title; ‘SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL DATA USING R’ The course will be delivered by Jason Matthiopoulos who is a Professor of Spatial and Population Ecology at the University of Glasgow (Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine) and the author of ‘How to be a Quantitative Ecologist’ the A to R of Green Mathematics and Statistics. The course content will cover the concepts and R tools that can be used to analyse spatial data in ecology covering elementary and advanced spatial analysis techniques applicable to both plants and animals. It will investigate analyses appropriate to transect (e.g. line surveys, trapping arrays), grid (e.g. occupancy surveys) and point data (e.g. telemetry). The focal questions will be on deriving species distributions, determining their environmental drivers and quantifying different types of associated uncertainty. Novel methodology for generating predictions will be introduced. We will also address the challenges of applying the results of these methods to wildlife conservation and resource management and communicate the findings to non-experts. Module 1 Introductory lectures; key questions in spatial ecology, the main types of data on species distributions, concepts, challenges and different types of environmental data; useful concepts from statistics; GLM’s Module 2 Density estimation, spatial autocorrelation, Smoothing, Kernel Smoothers, Kriging, Trend-fitting (linear, generalised linear, generalised additive models) Module 3 Habitat preference, Resource selection functions, MaxEnt: What’s it all about? Overview and caveats related to Niche models Module 4 Analysing grid data, Poisson processes, Occupancy models, Use-availability designs Module 5 Analysing telemetry data, Presence-only data, Spatial and serial autocorrelation, partitioning variation by mixed effects models Module 6 Analysing transect data, Detection functions for point and line transects, Using covariates in transect models Module 7 Advanced methods, Generalised Estimation Equations for difficult survey designs, GAM’s for habitat preference, Dealing with boundary effects using soap smoothers, Spatial point processes with INLA Module 8 Prediction, Validation by resampling, Generalised Functional Responses for species distribution, quantifying uncertainty, dealing with the effects of population density Module 9 Applications, Designing protected areas, thinking about critical habitat, representing uncertainty Module 10 Round table discussions, About 4 groups, each of 5-10 people working on a particular problem, to be worked out in advance of the course starting. The course is aimed at PhD students and post docs (although people at any stage of their career are welcome) with basic to moderate knowledge in R. The course will be held at SCENE (Scottish Center for Ecology and the Natural Environment), Glasgow, United Kingdom from 16th – 20th March 2015. The cost is £450 for the 5 days including lunches and refreshments or £650 for an all inclusive option which includes the addition of accommodation, all meals and refreshments, (accommodation is multiple occupancy (max 3 people) single sex en-suite rooms). For further details or questions please email email@example.com or visit http://bit.ly/1v1Pet4 Oliver Hooker PhD research student University of Glasgow +44 (0) 1360 870 510 +44 (0) 7966 500 340 firstname.lastname@example.org Oliver Hooker via Gmail
Periodically, mathematicians and other computationalists produce lists of what they refer to as "Open Problems" in their particular field. Phylogenetics is no exception. We have had a few on this blog before today (e.g. An open question about computational complexity; Phylogenetic network Millennium problems).
I thought that I should draw your attention to the fact that last year, Barbara Holland produced a few of her own (2013. The rise of statistical phylogenetics. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics 55: 205-220). These are:
Open problem 1: What is the natural analogue of a confidence interval for a phylogenetic tree?
Open problem 2: What are useful residual diagnostics for phylogenetic models?
Open problem 3: What makes a good phylogenetic model?
Open problem 4: Should DAGs be acceptable objects for inference or should network methods be restricted to exploratory data analysis?
It is obviously the latter problem that is of most interest to us here:
DAGs [directed acyclic graphs] can be constructed by beginning with a good tree and then progressively adding edges until the fit between the model and the data is deemed good enough or there is no sufficient improvement in fit by continuing to add edges. The trouble with using DAGs to define mixture models is that this approach doesn’t actually capture the biological processes of interest within the model. The sorts of things we’d like the data to tell us are what is the relative rate of recombination events or hybridisation events to mutation events or speciation events. The danger with using phylogenetic networks in an "add an extra edge until the fit is good enough" approach is that by giving ourselves the capacity to explain everything we risk explaining nothing. At some point have we stopped doing inference and got back to just summarising our data? In phylogenetics we rely on our models for their explanatory power — in the context of network evolution we need to make careful decisions about what biological processes should be included within the model such that inferences about reticulate (non-treelike) processes of evolution can be brought within the realm of stochastic uncertainty rather than being left as a source of inductive uncertainty. This is not a straightforward task, and will require the collaboration of evolutionary biologists and statisticians.One of the principal issues here is that it is almost impossible to consistently distinguish one reticulation process from another based on the structure of the resulting network. These processes all produce gene flow in the biological world, and they all appear as reticulations in the graphical representation of a network. In practice, phylogenetic analysis may boil down to only two biological processes in the model (vertical gene inheritance and horizontal gene flow), followed by biologists trying to sort out the details with post hoc analyses. Deep coalescence and gene duplication are part of the vertical inheritance, while hybridization, introgression, horizontal gene flow and recombination are part of gene flow. It would be nice to think that this model would simplify network analyses.
BBL: Parsing neutral and adaptive explanations for discordant latitudinal clines in a marine fish: implications for phenotypic evolution in a warming world
Wednesday, 12:00 PM at NESCent, Ninth Street and Main Street, Erwin Mill Building, 2024 W. Main Street. Room A103 (1st Floor) For more information, call 919-668-4551
The strange case of East African annual fish: aridification correlates with diversification for a savannah aquatic group?
Background: Annual Nothobranchius fish are distributed in East and Southern Africa and inhabit ephemeral pools filled during the monsoon season. Nothobranchius show extreme life-history adaptations: embryos survive by entering diapause and they are the vertebrates with the fastest maturation and the shortest lifespan. The distribution area of Nothobranchius overlaps with the East Africa Rift System. The geological and paleoclimatic history of this region is known in detail: in particular, aridification of East Africa and expansion of grassland habitats started 8 Mya and three humid periods between 3 and 1 Mya are superimposed on the longer-term aridification. These climatic oscillations are thought to have shaped evolution of savannah African mammals. We reconstructed the phylogeny of Nothobranchius and dated the different stages of diversification in relation to these paleoclimatic events. Results: We sequenced one mitochondrial locus and five nuclear loci in 63 specimens and obtained a robust phylogeny. Nothobranchius can be divided in four geographically separated clades whose boundaries largely correspond to the East Africa Rift system. Statistical analysis of dispersal and vicariance identifies a Nilo-Sudan origin with southwards dispersion and confirmed that these four clades are the result of vicariance events In the absence of fossil Nothobranchius, molecular clock was calibrated using more distant outgroups (secondary calibration). This method estimates the age of the Nothobranchius genus to be 8.3 (6.0 ? 10.7) My and the separation of the four clades 4.8 (2.7-7.0) Mya. Diversification within the clades was estimated to have started ~3 Mya and most species pair were estimated to have an age of 0.5-1 My. Conclusions: The mechanism of Nothobranchius diversification was allopatric and driven by geographic isolation. We propose a scenario where diversification of Nothobranchius started in rough coincidence with aridification of East Africa, establishment of grassland habitats and the appearance of the typical African bovid fauna of the savannah. Although confidence intervals for the estimated ages of the four Nothobranchius clades are quite large, this scenario is compatible with the biology of extant Nothobrachius that are critically dependent on savannah habitats. Therefore, Nothobranchius diversification might have been shaped by the same paleoclimatic events that shaped African ungulate evolution.
Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology
A meeting dealing specifically with research on topics related to human mutation rates will be held at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology from 25th - 27th February 2015. URL: http://bit.ly/1v6L5Ee This meeting aims at bringing together researchers from different fields that are interested in estimating the rate of mutations in humans and apes, the application of these rates to date events in the past, the differences in male and female mutation rates, the evolution of the mutation rate, the molecular and chemical mechanisms leading to germline and somatic mutations, and other topics related to the human mutation rate. The meeting is limited to a total of 90 participants and we would like all attendees to actively participate in the meeting by presenting results and joining discussions. Interested scientists are invited to submit an application including an abstract through our application website by 15th December 2014. Suitable abstracts will be selected on a first come, first serve basis and applicants will be informed as soon as possible whether they are accepted to attend the meeting. Registration for the meeting is free of charge and includes coffee breaks and small meals during the conference. Unfortunately, we are not able to support participants by funding travel or accommodation. The meeting will start on the evening of 25th February 2015 to allow guests to fly in on the first day of the meeting. Invited Speakers: * Kelley Harris * Agnar Helgason * Jean-Jacques Hublin * Michael Lynch * Kateryna Makova * Gilean McVean (tbc) * Molly Przeworski * David Reich * Aylwyn Scally * Mikkel Schierup * Michael Stratton * Shamil Sunyaev For further information, please visit our website or contact us by email: THMR2015@eva.mpg.de via Gmail
The Rosenthal lab in the Department of Environmental and Plant Biology at Ohio University, in Athens, OH is looking for independent, motivated graduate students interested in pursuing PhD in Plant Evolutionary Ecophysiology. I am particularly interested in applicants with a strong foundation in evolutionary genetics or breeding and a demonstrated interest in plant physiological ecology. The student will be expected to develop a thesis or dissertation that seeks to elucidate physiological, genetic (genomic) mechanisms constraining plant ecophysiological performance and productivity. Please contact me via email email@example.com prior to submitting an application. Highly qualified applicants who have completed their degrees by December 2014 could begin as early as January of 2015. To be considered for January admission a complete application must be received before November 7th, 2014. Application instructions can be found here: http://bit.ly/1vpGtuj David M Rosenthal Assistant ProfessorDepartment of Environmental and Plant Biology 309 Porter Hall Ohio University Athens, OH, 45701 740 593 0792 http://bit.ly/17d8uVu firstname.lastname@example.org via Gmail
GRADUATE OPPORTUNITIES IN ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY The Graduate Program in Ecology and Evolution in the Department of Ecology and Evolution at Stony Brook University is recruiting doctoral and master’s level graduate students for Fall 2012. The program trains students in Ecology, Evolution and Biometry. The following faculty are seeking graduate students this year: Stephen B. Baines - Aquatic Ecosystem Ecology http://bit.ly/1qZ3zk2 Michael A. Bell - Contemporary Evolution and Evolutionary Genetics http://bit.ly/15pztQp Liliana M. Dvalos - Vertebrate Phylogenetics, Biogeography and Conservation http://bit.ly/1qZ3zk7 Lev Ginzburg - Theoretical Ecology http://bit.ly/15pzwvr Catherine Graham - Tropical Vertebrate Biogeography and Ecology http://bit.ly/GPOPnC Jessica Gurevitch - Plant Population and Invasion Ecology http://bit.ly/15pzwLP Brenna Henn - Human Evolutionary Genomics http://bit.ly/1sErBY3 Jesse D. Hollister - Plant Evolutionary Genomics and Epigenetics http://bit.ly/1qZ3zAu Dianna K. Padilla - Invertebrate Aquatic Ecology and Conservation Biology http://bit.ly/GPORMk Joshua Rest - Evolutionary genomics http://bit.ly/15pzwvt Alistair Rogers - Plant Physiology and Climate Change www.bn.gov/TEST John True - Evolutionary Developmental Biology http://bit.ly/1sErCeq Kishna M. Veeramah - Primate Comparative Genomics http://bit.ly/1vGcJX0 For more information regarding the Graduate Program in Ecology and Evolution see http://bit.ly/GPOPnG and http://bit.ly/15pzwvv The deadline for receipt of all application materials for the PhD program is January 15, 2015 although earlier submission is encouraged to ensure full consideration for available fellowships. The deadline for receipt of all application materials for the master’s program is April 15, 2015. The Graduate School’s Center for Inclusive Education is offering application fee waivers if a studentwww.bn.gov/TEST John True - Evolutionary Developmental Biology http://bit.ly/1sErCeq Kishna M. Veeramah - Primate Comparative Genomics http://bit.ly/1vGcJX0 For more information regarding the Graduate Program in Ecology and Evolution see http://bit.ly/GPOPnG and http://bit.ly/15pzwvv The deadline for receipt of all application materials for the PhD program is January 15, 2015 although earlier submission is encouraged to ensure full consideration for available fellowships. The deadline for receipt of all application materials for the master’s program is April 15, 2015. The Graduate School’s Center for Inclusive Education is offering application fee waivers if a student has met with SBU representatives at a recruitment event and provided SBU with their contact information. For assistance, with this or other aspects of the application process, e-mail our Graduate Program Coordinator, Melissa Cohen email@example.com. firstname.lastname@example.org via Gmail
next talk: David Rasmussen: Statistical inference for phylodynamics, 2014-10-16 09:00 PDT Phylodynamic methods are widely used to estimate demographic parameters and historical population dynamics from genealogies of individuals sampled from a population. In this phyloseminar, I will describe how we can understand genealogies in terms of basic demographic or ecological processes, and how these concepts can be used to develop statistical models for inference. In particular, I will discuss some similarities and differences between the two main modeling frameworks in phylodynamics: the coalescent and birth-death models. I will also briefly introduce some of the latest statistical methods currently used to fit these models to genealogies. I will end by discussing one of the main challenges facing the fiel via Gmail
October 13, 2014
A PhD position is available in the lab of Adam Eyre-Walker at the University of Sussex to work on bacterial population genetics. The vast majority of organisms on this earth are prokaryotes and they are responsible for many of the biggest problems facing mankind, from diseases such as tuberculosis and typhoid, to hospital infections, such as those caused by methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, despite their prevalence and importance we still have a poor understanding of bacterial population genetics. We know the genome of many bacteria is highly labile so that any two strains of a bacterial “species” share only some genes; this has led to the concept of a core genome and an accessory genome. However, the evolutionary forces that act upon both genomes have not been extensively investigated. The aim of this project is to rectify this and to look at several aspects of bacterial population genetics in over 100 bacterial species for which multiple strains have been completely sequenced. The project will involve the bioinformatic analysis of publicly available data. Students with a str ong background in evolutionary biology, genetics and/or bioinformatics are particularly encouraged to apply. The position is available to UK and EU residents only. It is fully funded for 3.5 years; funding includes fees and a stipend equivalent to the standard UK research council rate (currently 13,863 per annum). The position involves 50 hours of teaching a year. Informal enquiries should be directed to Adam Eyre-Walker - email@example.com. Further details about the group can be found at http://bit.ly/11hpRZ7. Applications must be made through the University of Sussex’s clunky graduate school application system http://bit.ly/1D8yd2Q. Apply for September 2015 entry. Mention the name of supervisor in “suggested supervisor” section. In funding mention sponsored or seeking funding. In Award details mention School of Life Sciences funded studentship. Include brief statement of interest (upto 2 pages), CV, two academic references, UG/PG transcripts, IELTS/TOEFL results if residing in EU. Only full time students will be accepted. Deadline for applications is 30/11/14 via Gmail
When doing a bootstrap analysis with a single tree saved per pseudoreplicate, biased search algorithms may influence support values more than actual properties of the data set. Two methods commonly used for finding phylogenetic trees consist of randomizing the input order of species in multiple addition sequences followed by branch swapping, or using random trees as the starting point for branch swapping. The randomness inherent to such methods is assumed to eliminate any consistent preferences for some trees or unsupported groups of taxa, but both methods can be significantly biased. In the case of trees created by sequentially adding taxa, a bias may occur even if every addition sequence is equiprobable, and if one of the equally optimal positions for each terminal to add to the tree is selected equiprobably. In the case of branch swapping, the bias can happen even when branch swapping equiprobably selects any of the trees of better score in the subtree-pruning-regrafting-neighborhood or tree-bisection-reconnection-neighborhood. Consequently, when the data set is ambiguous, both random-addition sequences and branch swapping from random trees may (i) find some of the optimal trees much more frequently than others and (ii) find some groups with a frequency that differs from their frequency among all optimal trees. When the data set defines a single optimal tree, the groups present in that tree may have a different probability of being found by a search, even if supported by equal amounts of evidence. This may happen in both parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses, and even in small data sets without incongruence.
Mitochondrial Phylogenomics of Early Land Plants: Mitigating the Effects of Saturation, Compositional Heterogeneity, and Codon-Usage Bias
Phylogenetic analyses using concatenation of genomic-scale data have been seen as the panacea for resolving the incongruences among inferences from few or single genes. However, phylogenomics may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the, perhaps cumulative, effects of saturation, among-taxa compositional (GC content) heterogeneity, or codon-usage bias plaguing the individual nucleotide loci that are concatenated. Here, we provide an example of how these factors affect the inferences of the phylogeny of early land plants based on mitochondrial genomic data. Mitochondrial sequences evolve slowly in plants and hence are thought to be suitable for resolving deep relationships. We newly assembled mitochondrial genomes from 20 bryophytes, complemented these with 40 other streptophytes (land plants plus algal outgroups), compiling a data matrix of 60 taxa and 41 mitochondrial genes. Homogeneous analyses of the concatenated nucleotide data resolve mosses as sister-group to the remaining land plants. However, the corresponding translated amino acid data support the liverwort lineage in this position. Both results receive weak to moderate support in maximum-likelihood analyses, but strong support in Bayesian inferences. Tests of alternative hypotheses using either nucleotide or amino acid data provide implicit support for their respective optimal topologies, and clearly reject the hypotheses that bryophytes are monophyletic, liverworts and mosses share a unique common ancestor, or hornworts are sister to the remaining land plants. We determined that land plant lineages differ in their nucleotide composition, and in their usage of synonymous codon variants. Composition heterogeneous Bayesian analyses employing a nonstationary model that accounts for variation in among-lineage composition, and inferences from degenerated nucleotide data that avoid the effects of synonymous substitutions that underlie codon-usage bias, again recovered liverworts being sister to the remaining land plants but without support. These analyses indicate that the inference of an early-branching moss lineage based on the nucleotide data is caused by convergent compositional biases. Accommodating among-site amino acid compositional heterogeneity (CAT-model) yields no support for the optimal resolution of liverwort as sister to the rest of land plants, suggesting that the robust inference of the liverwort position in homogeneous analyses may be due in part to compositional biases among sites. All analyses support a paraphyletic bryophytes with hornworts composing the sister-group to tracheophytes. We conclude that while genomic data may generate highly supported phylogenetic trees, these inferences may be artifacts. We suggest that phylogenomic analyses should assess the possible impact of potential biases through comparisons of protein-coding gene data and their amino acid translations by evaluating the impact of substitutional saturation, synonymous substitutions, and compositional biases through data deletion strategies and by analyzing the data using heterogeneous composition models. We caution against relying on any one presentation of the data (nucleotide or amino acid) or any one type of analysis even when analyzing large-scale data sets, no matter how well-supported, without fully exploring the effects of substitution models.
Tropical Southeast (SE) Asia harbors extraordinary species richness and in its entirety comprises four of the Earth's 34 biodiversity hotspots. Here, we examine the assembly of the SE Asian biota through time and space. We conduct meta-analyses of geological, climatic, and biological (including 61 phylogenetic) data sets to test which areas have been the sources of long-term biological diversity in SE Asia, particularly in the pre-Miocene, Miocene, and Plio-Pleistocene, and whether the respective biota have been dominated by in situ diversification, immigration and/or emigration, or equilibrium dynamics. We identify Borneo and Indochina, in particular, as major "evolutionary hotspots" for a diverse range of fauna and flora. Although most of the region's biodiversity is a result of both the accumulation of immigrants and in situ diversification, within-area diversification and subsequent emigration have been the predominant signals characterizing Indochina and Borneo's biota since at least the early Miocene. In contrast, colonization events are comparatively rare from younger volcanically active emergent islands such as Java, which show increased levels of immigration events. Few dispersal events were observed across the major biogeographic barrier of Wallace's Line. Accelerated efforts to conserve Borneo's flora and fauna in particular, currently housing the highest levels of SE Asian plant and mammal species richness, are critically required.
The Genealogical World of Phylogenetic Networks
BMC Evolutionary Biology
Molecular Biology and Evolution