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July 23, 2014
In the last two decades, models from evolutionary biology have made important contributions to demographic research on human fertility change. Within this evolutionary framework, two distinct traditions have focused on different processes of adaptation and time scales of change: (1) behavioral ecological perspectives have focused on how individual fertility decisions are shaped by local ecological circumstances, while (2) cultural evolutionary approaches have emphasized the role of socially transmitted information and changing social norms in shaping fertility behavior. While each tradition has made independent progress, research that integrates these approaches is necessary to improve our understanding of real fertility behavior, which results from a feedback between individual fertility decisions and social change. This approach requires combined attention to immediate ecological determinants of fertility decisions as well as the long-term processes that shape costs and benefits in a given environment. This workshop will bring together an international team of evolutionary behavioral scientists with complementary methodological and theoretical expertise in anthropology, psychology, and demography to develop (a) a synthetic article which proposes how these approaches can be integrated methodologically and theoretically, (b) an empirical article which applies our new synthetic framework to the study of fertility change in a particular fieldsite, demonstrating how the new methodological approach will work in practice and what we can learn through employing it, and (c) a multi-site grant proposal (UK, US, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Bolivia, Poland) aimed at integrating and empirically testing these diverse evolutionary models of human fertility change.
Background: The oxidative stress theory of life-history tradeoffs states that oxidative stress caused by damaging free radicals directly underpins tradeoffs between reproduction and longevity by altering the allocation of energetic resources between these tasks. We test this theory by characterizing the effects of exogenous oxidative insult and its interaction with thermal stress and diet quality on a suite of life-history traits and correlations in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. We also quantify demographic aging rates and endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in live animals. Results: Our findings indicate a tradeoff between investment in reproduction and antioxidant defense (somatic maintenance) consistent with theoretical predictions, but correlations between standard life-history traits yield little evidence that oxidative stress generates strict tradeoffs. Increasing oxidative insult, however, shows a strong tendency to uncouple positive phenotypic correlations and, in particular, to reduce the correlation between reproduction and lifespan. We also found that mild oxidative insult results in lower levels of endogenous ROS accompanied by hormetic changes in lifespan, demographic aging, and reproduction that disappear in combined-stress treatments--consistent with the oxidative stress theory of aging. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress is a direct contributor to life-history trait variation and that traditional tradeoffs are not necessary to invoke oxidative stress as a mediator of relationships between life-history traits, supporting previous calls for revisions to theory.
Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Motif types, motif locations and base composition patterns around the RNA polyadenylation site in microorganisms, plants and animals
Background: The polyadenylation of RNA is critical for gene functioning, but the conserved sequence motifs (often called signal or signature motifs), motif locations and abundances, and base composition patterns around mRNA polyadenylation [poly(A)] sites are still uncharacterized in most species. The evolutionary tendency for poly(A) site selection is still largely unknown. Results: We analyzed the poly(A) site regions of 31 species or phyla. Different groups of species showed different poly(A) signal motifs: UUACUU at the poly(A) site in the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi; UGUAAC (approximately 13 bases upstream of the site) in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; UGUUUG (or UGUUUGUU) at mainly the fourth base downstream of the poly(A) site in the parasite Blastocystis hominis; and AAUAAA at approximately 16 bases and approximately 19 bases upstream of the poly(A) site in animals and plants, respectively. Polyadenylation signal motifs are usually several hundred times more abundant around poly(A) sites than in whole genomes. These predominant motifs usually had very specific locations, whether upstream of, at, or downstream of poly(A) sites, depending on the species or phylum. The poly(A) site was usually an adenosine (A) in all analyzed species except for B. hominis, and there was weak A predominance in C. reinhardtii. Fungi, animals, plants, and the protist Phytophthora infestans shared a general base abundance pattern (or base composition pattern) of ?U-rich?A-rich?U-rich?Poly(A) site?U-rich regions?, or U-A-U-A-U for short, with some variation for each kingdom or subkingdom. Conclusion: This study identified the poly(A) signal motifs, motif locations, and base composition patterns around mRNA poly(A) sites in protists, fungi, plants, and animals and provided insight into poly(A) site evolution.
Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology
The Washington Area Phylogenetics Consortium is pleased to announce the 2014 Frontiers in Phylogenetics Symposium! “Genome-Scale Phylogenetics: Analysing the Data$B!I(B Symposium Location: Warner Brothers Theatre, National Museum of American History, Washington, DC Time and Date: 9 AM to 5 PM, Monday September 15, 2014 REGISTRATION IS FREE BUT REQUIRED. Please visit the link below to register. http://bit.ly/1ltNVLG WELCOME John Kress - Acting Undersecretary for Science, Smithsonian Institution SPEAKERS Bastien Boussau, Laboratory of Biometry and Evolutionary Biology, University Claude Bernard, Lyon, France Ingo Ebersberger, Department for Applied Bioinformatics, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany Lacey Knowles, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA Kevin Kocot, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Luay Nakhleh, Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA David Swofford, Department of Biology, Duke University, and National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA Derrick Zwickl, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA The Frontiers in Phylogenetics Symposium is sponsored by the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution and the Washington Area Phylogenetics Consortium. http://bit.ly/1nmXgJa An updated announcement with talk titles and symposium schedule will follow soon. Please contact email@example.com with any questions “Coyle, Brian J.” via Gmail
NESCent in Retrospect: What Has NESCent Meant To You? NSF funding for NESCent (the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center) is coming to an end, and we will be closing our doors in June of 2015, after 10 years of evolutionary science, informatics and outreach. If you are a past participant in NESCent activities, we’d love to hear your thoughts on the impact NESCent has had on you, and/or the evolution community, at large. We invite you to record and submit a brief (30 seconds or less) video testimonial in which you discuss NESCent’s impact on your research or teaching, or simply share a favorite NESCent memory. Your video message can be funny or serious (or both). You can express your feelings through word, song or interpretive dance. You are free to use claymation, CGI or the plain, old talking-into-the-camera approach. We just want you to help us tell the story of NESCent. These videos don’t need to be professionally made - feel free to record them on your iPhone/smartphone, laptop webcam or via any other method that works for you. Click here http://bit.ly/1z0pygU to submit your video. The videos will be shared on NESCent’s website. Please submit your video by November 1st, 2014. For more information, contact Jory Weintraub (jory at nascent dot org). Thank you for being an important part of our story. We look forward to hearing your thoughts on NESCent! Jory P. Weintraub, PhD Assistant Director, Education & Outreach National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent) 2024 West Main St., Suite A200, Durham, NC 27705 Phone: 919.668.4578 Fax: 919.668.9198 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Skype: jory.weintraub “Weintraub, Jory P” via Gmail
BioInfoSummer 2014: Summer Symposium in Bioinformatics 1-5 December 2014 Monash University (Caulfield), Melbourne Bioinformatics is an exciting, fast‑moving area analysing and simulating the structures and processes of biological systems. BioInfoSummer introduces students, researchers and others working in related areas to the discipline. The program features: Introduction to molecular biosciences and bioinformatics Next-generation DNA sequencing and sequence evolution High-throughput technology and omics data analysis Methods in bioinformatics Systems biology Speakers include: Professor Mark Ragan (Institute for Molecular Bioscience) Professor Chris Overall (University of British Columbia) Professor Roger Daly (Monash University) Associate Professor Barbara Holland (University of Tasmania) Dr Alicia Oshlack, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Thank you Simi Simi Henderson Research and Higher Education Manager 2014 AMSI-SSAI Lecturer: Top statistician touring the country from August. http://bit.ly/1p9pe8H Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute Building 161, C/- The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 Australia P: +61 (3) 8344 1772 | F: +61 (3) 8344 6324 | E: email@example.com | W: www.amsi.org.au F: http://bit.ly/1aLiCpzwww.amsi.org.au F: http://bit.ly/1aLiCpz Simi Henderson via Gmail
Just a quick reminder regarding this position. If you are considering applying please send in your application by 1 August ***** Postdoctoral Fellow in Bioinformatics/Evolutionary Genetics to examine short- and long-term organismal response to environmental change We are looking for a motivated bioinformaticist to join the CREST team at the University of Hawaii Hilo. CREST is a 5-year NSF-funded project (July 2014 - June 2019; see project overview below). Hawaii is world renowned as an ideal setting for evolutionary studies, and Hilo and the Big Island boast exceptional cultural and natural diversity and a high standard of living. This is an exciting opportunity to work with a diverse team of researchers working collaboratively on the common theme of organismal response to environmental change. The successful candidate will join a team of 9 faculty, 3 technicians, and several graduate students studying the short-term (stress response) and long-term (adaptation) responses of a broad range of terrestrial and marine organisms to environmental change, broadly defined. The postdoc will provide expertise in the application of bioinformatics analyses and will work alongside project personnel and collaborating bioinformaticists on campus and at outside institutions on the analysis of genomics and transcriptomics data to meet project goals. Responsibilities will include: collaborating in the design of experiments and analysis of data from next-generation sequencing instruments, including RNA-Sequencing, SNP, and full-genome sequencing data; assisting in the management of genomic data and associated phenotypic trait data on various local data storage systems; and preparation of manuscripts, reports and presentations. CREST Project Overview: The overarching theme of this project is Understanding Biotic Response to Environmental Change in Tropical Ecosystems Through a Place-Based Context. This CREST:TCBES proposal focuses on three synergistic research themes: 1) Organismal Response to Environmental Change (OREC): While local adaptation along environmental gradients and tracking of changing environments involve short-term acclimation and longer term evolution, it is not known if organisms are responding to average environmental conditions or to the extreme conditions experienced in their habitats. The OREC team will examine the short- and long-term responses of key organisms to a range of environmental conditions, both steady and fluctuating, and will incorporate those results into models of landscape-level response to climate change. 2) Behavioral Responses to Environmental Change (BREC): Behaviors central to the survival and reproductive success of animals have evolved through natural and sexual selection in a far different ecological environment than exists today. The BREC team will use emerging genetic and acoustic tools to examine the effect of anthropogenic change on important social behaviors in animals ranging from arthropods to whales. 3) Dynamic Interactions between Symbioses and Environment (DISE): Macro-organisms live in symbiosis with a community of microorganisms; these symbiotic relationships can shift in response to environmental changes. The DISE team will explore adaptations of the mutualism-pathogenesis-parasitism continuum in multiple symbiotic systems. Integration of next-generation DNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis in each of the research areas will allow unprecedented insight into the molecular basis of biotic responses to environmental change. As teaching experience is an important component of the postdoctoral experience, the postdoc will also be encouraged to teach one course or workshop per year at UH Hilo at the graduate** or undergraduate level in his/her area of expertise. **Tropical Conservation Biology and Environmental Science Graduate Program http://bit.ly/1d348Do The position is for one year, renewable. The successful candidate will be a self-starter and creative problem solver with strong communication and interpersonal skills. Minimum qualifications: PhD involving bioinformatics analysis on an evolutionary problem, experience with genomic techniques and bioinformatics analysis. Desired qualifications: software development and implementation for multi-dimensional data from genome sequencing, gene expression and SNP genotyping between species, populations and experimental treatments, mathematical modeling of population genetic processes. For Inquiries: Donald Price 808-932-7178, firstname.lastname@example.org. To apply: Please send CV, contact information for 3 references, a cover letter describing how you meet the position’s qualifications, and any relevant publications. Please send all materials in a single email to Don Price (email@example.com) with the subject line Bioinformatics Postdoc. Anticipated start date: 1 September 2014 (but flexible). Review of applications will begin Monday, 14 July. Individuals from under-represented groups are particularly encouraged to apply. We (Don Price and Elizabeth Stacy) will be at the SSE 2014 meeting in Raleigh. Please find us if this position interests you! via Gmail
Hello, Id be grateful if you could post the survey link below to evoldir. I am researching the factors that might influence postdoc job applications and I am looking for responses from people who finished their PhD in 2009 or later in the broad field of evolutionary and population biology, ecology and genetics. The survey is very short and only takes a few minutes to complete. Thanks very much for your time. Very best, Fiona The survey is here: http://svy.mk/1nzRd5S Dr Fiona C Ingleby Postdoctoral Research Fellow University of Sussex Email: F.Ingleby@sussex.ac.uk Website: fionaingleby.weebly.com Fiona Ingleby via Gmail
PhD position in behavioral ecology at the Georg-August University Gttingen, Germany The Anthropology/Sociobiology department at the Georg-August University Gttingen in collaboration with the Behavioral Ecology Unit, German Primate Center, Germany (http://bit.ly/1fyHQM1) is offering a PhD position for 3 years in a DFG-funded project starting on 1 November 2014 (payment: 65% E13 TV-L). We seek a highly motivated Ph.D. student who will work on the link between sociality and health in wild primates. The project focuses on the interplay between social relationships, physiological stress and health in redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons). Field work will be conducted at the field station of the German Primate Center in Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar (http://bit.ly/1rA1Dnz). The methods to be employed include behavioral observations, endocrinological as well as immunological assays, and parasitological analyses. Applicants must have a MSc degree (or equivalent) in a relevant field. Further job requirements include field experience (preferably in the tropics), the ability to work independently as well as basic French skills. Good quantitative, analytical, and English skills are also essential. Familiarity with observation techniques, ELISA, and parasitological analyses are highly desirable. This project is part of a new research unit (FOR 2136-1) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) entitled “Sociality and Health in Primates”. PIs from Gttingen, Berlin and Leipzig will combine their knowledge and skills to take up a novel collaborative research project on this topic. Successful candidates will be integrated into established PhD programs and will benefit from the family service of the University of Gttingen and the DPZ’s certification (“Beruf und Familie”) for issues relating to career planning, mentoring, coaching, child care and work life balance. The University of Gttingen is an equal opportunities employer and places particular emphasis on fostering career opportunities for women. Qualified women are therefore strongly encouraged to apply. Disabled persons with equivalent aptitude will be favoured. Candidates should submit their application by e-mail as a pdf containing a cover letter, CV and the contact information of two referees. Applications received until 22 August, 2014 will be fully considered, but the position remains open until a suitable candidate has been identified. Informal inquiries are welcome and should be made to Dr. Cornelia Kraus (firstname.lastname@example.org until August 15) or to Dr. Claudia Fichtel (Claudia.Fichtel@gwdg.de until August 22). Please send applications to: Dr. Cornelia Kraus Department of Sociobiology/Anthropology Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach-Institute for Zoology and Anthropology Georg-August University of Gttingen Kellnerweg 6 D-37077 Gttingen Germany email@example.com “Kraus, Cornelia” via Gmail
July 22, 2014
NorthCarolinaStateU.EvolGenomicsCichlids A postdoctoral position is available in the lab of Reade Roberts in the North Carolina State University Department of Biological Sciences (Raleigh, NC), starting Fall 2014. The overarching research aim of the Roberts Lab is to understand the genetic basis of adaptive evolution and developmental differences, using East African cichlid fishes as a comparative model system. Active projects focus on polygenic sex determination systems and dietary adaptation at the level of the gastrointestinal tract, and the successful candidate would be expected to contribute to these on-going research themes. Potential specific experiments under these themes are quite varied, but each should ultimately contribute to the identification of genes, genetic changes, and epistatic interactions modulating sex determination or gastrointestinal biology. Research in the lab draws on a number of skill-sets, including genetic mapping, gene expression analysis, high-throughput sequencing, comparative genomics, bioinformatics, fieldwork, and evolutionary, developmental, and molecular biology. An ideal candidate will have demonstrated expertise spanning a few of these areas, and the motivation, creativity, and analytical skills to drive and develop their line of research. Candidates must have a PhD in an appropriate field and the willingness to work with laboratory animals. The position is full-time for one year, with further extension subject to satisfactory performance in the first year. Interested applicants should send a brief note (~1 page) describing previous research experience and their interests and goals in our lab, as well as a current CV including contact information for at least two references. Please send application materials or any questions regarding the position to firstname.lastname@example.org, preferably in pdf format. Applications will be considered on an on-going basis until the position is filled. email@example.com via Gmail
The Savannah River Ecology Lab (SREL) at the University of Georgia is soliciting applications for a Postdoctoral Research Associate in Ecological and Evolutionary Genomics, with a particular emphasis on amphibian adaptation to stressors. At this point there are three broad research avenues within which the accepted candidate could develop her/his specific project. One would involve investigations into variation within and among amphibian species in disease susceptibility using a genomics approach. The second would follow up on current studies examining variation in tolerance to contaminant stressors and local adaptation to heavy metals. The third would evaluate landscape genetic patterns of amphibians (multiple species) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) with an emphasis on how areas of contamination may impact gene flow. A majority of the samples for this third project have already been collected and we would likely use a 2bRAD-seq approach. Numerous opportunities exist to assist with other ongoing studies at SREL and to initiate additional side projects. Qualifications: A Ph.D. in ecology, evolution or related field is required. Preference will be given to applicants possessing a strong molecular background, experience with genomics, and preferably experience with bioinformatics analysis. The postdoc will assist with training graduate and undergraduate students. The successful applicant is expected to demonstrate commitment to timely completion of deliverables, publication of results in peer-reviewed outlets, and presentation of results at scientific conferences. Applications will be reviewed starting August 11th and will continue until a suitable candidate has been identified. Current funding is available for 1 year, with the possibility of extension pending renewal of funding and satisfactory performance. Salary will be $35,000 per year plus benefits. To apply, please send a 1) cover letter summarizing your qualifications for and interest in the position, 2) a CV, 3) scanned copies of transcripts, and 4) names and contact information for three references to Stacey Lance: firstname.lastname@example.org. email@example.com via Gmail
Role of Caribbean Islands in the diversification and biogeography of Neotropical Heraclides swallowtails
Numerous hypotheses on the evolution of Neotropical biodiversity have stimulated research to provide a better understanding of diversity dynamics and distribution patterns of the region. However, few studies integrate molecular and morphological data with complete sampling of a Neotropical group, and so there has been little synthesis of the multiple processes governing biodiversity through space and time. Here, a total-evidence phylogenetic approach is used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the butterfly subgenus Heraclides. We used DNA sequences for two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene and coded 133 morphological characters of larvae and adults. A robust and well-resolved phylogeny was obtained using several analytical approaches, while molecular dating and biogeographical analyses indicated an early Miocene origin (22 Mya) in the Caribbean Islands. We inferred six independent dispersal events from the Caribbean to the mainland, and three from the mainland to the Caribbean, and we suggest that cooling climates with decreasing sea levels may have contributed to these events. The time-calibrated tree is best explained by a museum model of diversity in which both speciation and extinction rates remained constant through time. By assessing both continental and fine-scale biodiversity patterns, this study provides new findings, for instance that islands may act as source of diversity rather than as a sink, to explain spatio-temporal macroevolutionary processes within the Neotropical region.
I have written before about the expected genetic problems associated with inbreeding, including consanguinity and incest (relationships between people who are first cousins or closer). Conventionally, the evolutionary advantage of sexual over non-sexual reproduction is considered to be the creation of genetic diversity through heterozygosity. Inbreeding, by reducing heterozygosity, then seems to negate the advantages of sexual reproduction — it leads to the propagation of deleterious recessive alleles and thus inbreeding depression. So, there is a clear evolutionary dimension to the fact that incest avoidance is nearly universal in humans.
The best known exceptions to this situation are among royalty, including the family "trees" of the ancient Egyptian 18th Dynasty (see Tutankhamun and extreme consanguinity) and the Egyptian Ptolemaic dynasty (see Cleopatra, ambition and family networks), which were hybridization networks rather than conventional trees. The presence of consanguinity and incest among royal families then requires a biological explanation. As noted by van den Berghe & Mesher (1980):
Royal incest is best explained in terms of the general sociobiological paradigm of inclusive fitness ... Royal incest (mostly brother-sister; less commonly father-daughter) represents the logical extreme of hypergyny. Women in stratified societies maximize fitness by marrying up; the higher the status of a woman, the narrower her range of prospective husbands. This leads to a direct association between high status and inbreeding.The benefits of inclusive fitness refer to the increased number of offspring in future generations that result from increasing the reproductive success of close relatives. This is achieved via choice of mate. In other words, close relatives share genes, and the success of any relative in leaving offspring is a success for all relatives. Therefore, evolutionary fitness is a combination of individual fitness plus the fitness of close relatives. Inbreeding may reduce individual fitness but can increase inclusive fitness, as noted by Puurtinen (2011):
Theoretical work has shown that inclusive fitness benefits can favor close inbreeding even when this results in substantial reduction in offspring fitness. These models have identified the boundary level of inbreeding depression limiting the evolution of inbreeding among first-order relatives, that is, between full siblings, or between parents and offspring.So, there is a stable level of inbreeding in those populations that practice mate choice for optimal inbreeding. For example, the genetic risks of close inbreeding can be more than accounted for by the production of a highly related heir who has access to a wide choice of mates. Nevertheless:
For a wide range of realistic inbreeding depression strengths, mating with intermediately related individuals maximizes inclusive fitness.In other words, mating with very close relatives is unlikely to evolve via natural selection because it is not an optimal strategy; and we must thus look to a sociological component to incest (such as retaining wealth within the family), as well as a biological one.
In this context, it is interesting to note exceptions to the usual restriction of incest to the aristocracy. The society of Graeco-Roman Egypt (from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE) provides the best-documented case (eg. see Hopkins 1980; Shaw 1992; Parker 1996; Scheidel 1997; Huebner 2007; Remijsen & Clarysse 2008). [This era starts with the Ptolemaic dynasty, which marks the collapse of Egyptian rule of Egypt.] During this time a significant proportion of all marriages noted in official Roman census declarations were between full brothers and sisters. That is, the Roman-era Egyptians did not limit this type of inbreeding to any small group, but spread it across several social classes (mainly Greek settlers rather than native Egyptians).
As noted by Schiedel (1997):
According to official census returns from Roman Egypt (first to third centuries CE) preserved on papyrus, 23·5% of all documented marriages in the Arsinoites district in the Fayum (n=102) were between brothers and sisters. In the second century CE, the rates were 37% in the city of Arsinoe and 18·9% in the surrounding villages. Documented pedigrees suggest a minimum mean level of inbreeding equivalent to a coefficient of inbreeding of 0·0975 in second century CE Arsinoe. Undocumented sources of inbreeding and an estimate based on the frequency of close-kin unions indicate a mean coefficient of inbreeding of F=0·15-0·20 in Arsinoe and of F=0·10-0·15 in the villages at the end of the second century CE. These values are several times as high as any other documented levels of inbreeding.For comparison, the inbreeding F values for these family relationships are:
parent-offspring = siblings
uncle-niece = double first cousins
first cousins once removed
second cousins 0.500
However, inbreeding depression seems not to have been a notable problem during this historical time. As noted by John Hawkes:
There is not a single mention in the evidence that links sibling marriage to negative genetic effects or unhappy marriages.This does not mean that there were no problems, but merely that any problems were not documented, as noted by Scheidel (1997):
Even in the absence of explicit references to inbreeding depression from Roman Egypt, there is no compelling reason to assume that brother–sister marriage could have remained entirely without negative consequences for the Arsinoites. It is however possible that, due to a low incidence of lethal recessives, such effects were considerably weaker than in some western samples. The census returns do not suggest lower levels of fertility or smaller numbers of children among sibling couples ...The practice seems to have stopped solely because it was contrary to Roman Law:
Before a.d. 212 the Romans had accepted discrepancies between their own legal practice and prevailing local customs and traditions in the Eastern provinces. Papyri from Roman Egypt, the Talmud, and the Romano-Syrian law book indeed reveal legal procedures which differed significantly from Roman law in matters such as marriage, guardianship, paternal authority, sales, and debts. The Constitutio Antoniana, however, made all free men and women of the Roman Empire into Roman citizens, and so Roman law became applicable to all inhabitants of Egypt. Brother-sister marriages cease to be documented in our Roman census returns from the early third century on. Our last [incest] testimony dates to a.d. 229.
Hopkins K (1980) Brother-sister marriage in Roman Egypt. Comparative Studies in Society and History 22: 303-354.
Huebner SR (2007) "Brother-sister" marriage in Roman Egypt: a curiosity of humankind or a widespread family strategy? Journal of Roman Studies 97: 21-49.
Parker S (1996) Full brother-sister marriage in Roman Egypt: Another look. Cultural Anthropology 11: 362-376.
Puurtinen M (2011) Mate choice for optimal (k)inbreeding. Evolution 65: 1501-1505.
Remijsen S, Clarysse W (2008) Incest or adoption? Brother-sister marriage in Roman Egypt revisited. Journal of Roman Studies 98: 53-61.
Scheidel W (1997) Brother-sister marriage in Roman Egypt. Journal of Biosocial Science 29: 361-371.
Shaw BD (1992) Explaining incest: brother-sister marriage in Graeco-Roman Egypt. Man 27: 267-299.
—_000_07050cdc982e49f1b9f56bfd926d0d2aBY2PR05MB792namprd05pro_ Content-Type: text/plain; charset=”us-ascii” Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable About 100 people generously volunteered to let their talks be recorded at the recent Evolution 2014 conference in Raleigh, NC, in June, and approximately 80 talks were successfully recorded (~10% of the total presented at the meeting). These were recorded via smartphones as part of an experimental program, so the quality is somewhat variable, but the majority are clear (i.e., slides easily readable). This effort was sponsored by the Society for the Study of Evolution and executed by a team of student volunteers. The list of recorded talks (with links to their abstracts and videos) is available at: http://bit.ly/1loRoew If you’d just like to browse the recorded talks, they are in a YouTube channel at: http://bit.ly/1rmlq8D Again, this was an experimental program, we appreciate the efforts of everyone who made these videos possible, and we apologize to the minority of speakers either who wanted but didn’t get their talks recorded or whose slides are not (easily) readable. We hope the community appreciates the accessibility these videos bring to exciting scientific results, and that these videos encourage people to attend one of the future Evolution conferences in person to see more great science and to interact in person. Next year’s conference will be in Guaruja, Brazil: http://bit.ly/1loRpyV (website in progress) —_000_07050cdc982e49f1b9f56bfd926d0d2aBY2PR05MB792namprd05pro_ Content-Type: text/html; charset=”us-ascii” Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
—089e01228d464a38cb04feb6dbc8 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Molecular Evolution/Planetary Science.Postdoctoral Associate Computational Biology Phylogenetics Microbial Evolution The Fournier Lab within the Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences Department at MIT is seeking qualified candidates for the position of Postdoctoral Associate for a 1-year appointment with possible extension, to begin during the 2014-2015 academic year. Ongoing research areas include microbial phylogenetics and phylometabolomics, development of molecular clock models and time calibration of microbial evolution across planetary timescales, horizontal gene transfer, ancestral sequence reconstruction, genomic paleontology, and co-evolution of microbial ecology and planetary processes. Requirements: PhD with a strong background in bioinformatics, phylogenetics, statistics, and computer programming. Qualified applicants are encourged to apply by email to Professor Gregory Fournier, firstname.lastname@example.org. Application should include Curriculum Vitae; name, email address and telephone number of three professional references; and a brief statement of research interest. —089e01228d464a38cb04feb6dbc8 Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printableMassachusetts Institute of Technology.Molecular Evolution/Planetary Science.Postdoctoral AssociateComputational BiologyPhylogeneticsMicrobial EvolutionThe Fournier Lab within the Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences Department at MIT is seeking qualified candidates for the position of Postdoctoral Associate for a 1-year appointment with possible extension, to begin during the 2014-2015 academic year.Ongoing research areas include microbial phylogenetics and phylometabolomics, development of molecular clock models and time calibration of microbial evolution across planetary timescales, horizontal gene transfer, ancestral sequence reconstruction, genomic paleontology, and co-evolution of microbial ecology and planetary processes.Requirements: PhD with a strong background in bioinformatics, phylogenetics, statistics, and computer programming. Qualified applicants are encourged to apply by email to Professor Gregory Fournier, email@example.com.Application should include Curriculum Vitae; name, email address and telephone number of three professional references; and a brief statement of research interest. —089e01228d464a38cb04feb6dbc via Gmail
Application is now open for the following postdoc position we announced earlier. To apply, please visit http://bit.ly/1yU09W4 quote the reference number UOS008884. The initial closing date is 31 August 2014. Please note the updated information about starting date and other specifications of the post. A postdoc position is available to work with Dr Kai Zeng and Prof Jon Slate at the University of Sheffield. The position is funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) to carry out population genomic studies in great tits (/Parus major/). Questions of interest include examining how demography and natural selection shape patterns of diversity across the genome and understanding what evolutionary forces have acted on loci that underlie phenotypic variation, by using existing methods and developing new methods. The project involves whole-genome sequencing of multiple great tit individuals using high-throughput sequencing instruments, and the subsequent bioinformatic/population genetic analysis of the data. Therefore, demonstrable expertise in population/evolutionary genetics, computer programming and statistical analysis of large-scale datasets is essential. Experience in preparing DNA samples for high-throughput sequencing instruments is an advantage, but non-essential. The post is available for up to 3 years, and is available from January 2015 or as soon as possible afterwards. The starting salary is 28,972- 30,728 perannum, depending on experience and qualification. The applicant should provide a CV, a list of publications, a statement of research interests, and contact details of at least two referees. Enquiries are welcomed and should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org Kai Zeng via Gmail
July 21, 2014
Primate Social Evolution Dept., University of Gttingen, Germany PhD - Primate Behavioral Endocrinology Application deadline: 31.8.2014 The Department of Primate Social Evolution (http://bit.ly/1n7UKag) at the Georg-August-Universitt Gttingen is looking to fill a PhD position with 50% of the regular working hours (currently 19.9 hours per week) with a limited contract of 1 year with a possible extension for another 2 years. This position should be filled by approximately 01.02.2015. Salary: Pay grade 13 TV-L. Your duties We are seeking a highly motivated PhD student to work on the links between social interactions, social relationships and stress physiology in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). The project will combine behavioral observations with non-invasive hormone analysis and will be part of the Assamese macaque project at Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand (http://bit.ly/1yTN5QI). Your profile Applicants should have a Master’s degree (or equivalent) in a relevant field and should be familiar with topics of behavioral ecology and behavioral endocrinology. Previous field experience is mandatory. The applicant will spend approximately 15 months in the field and thus should be physically fit, emotionally mature, able to integrate into an international team of diverse cultural backgrounds, be able to work independently and to spend long hours alone in a dense forest. Excellent English skills are essential as is the willingness to learn basic Thai. The PhD student will be enrolled in a graduate program of the University of Gttingen, e.g. Behavior and Cognition (http://bit.ly/1yTN5QN). The University of Gttingen is an equal opportunities employer and places particular emphasis on fostering career opportunities for women. Qualified women are therefore strongly encouraged to apply as they are underrepresented in this field. Disabled persons with equivalent aptitude will be favored. Please send your application with the usual documents incl. names and addresses of 2 referees in electronic form by August 31st 2014 to Prof. Julia Ostner, CRC Evolution of Social Behavior, Primate Social Evolution, email: email@example.com. “Ostner, Julia” via Gmail
MaxPlanckInst_Seewiesen.BlueTitFieldAssistant The Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics at the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Seewiesen, Bayern, Germany (see http://bit.ly/1n7UMix), is seeking four field assistants to work from 1st October 2014 to 31st March 2015. These assistants will work as part of a long-term study on the reproductive biology of a blue tit /Cyanistes caeruleus/ population in a protected forest site in Southern Germany. Work will include: catching birds at feeders and nest-boxes using traps and/or mist nets measuring and banding birds maintenance of electronic nest-box and feeder hardware and equipment setting up experimental equipment data collection, entry, and management Successful candidates must have experience in catching and handling birds, including extensive experience in mist netting. Applicants should also be highly motivated and well organised, with capabilities of working both in a group and independently. Field work hours can be long and tiring, thus applicants must be prepared to work in all types of weather conditions, at any time (including weekends and holidays), with typically only one day off per week. The working language at the Institute is English, so good knowledge of the language is required. A full, clean driver’s licence is essential, with driving experience of at least one year. Experience in driving vehicles with manual transmission is also a necessity. Applicants from outside the EU must ensure they are eligible to remain in Europe for the duration of their contract. Successful candidates should be vaccinated against Tick Borne Encephalitis (TBE or FSME) before commencing the field work. In addition, applicants should be aware that Lyme disease spread by ticks is common in the area, and should inform themselves about the disease in advance. The payment would be in accordance with the collective agreement for public employees (TVD). The Max Planck Institute for Ornithology employs a dynamic, dedicated, and international group of researchers who are focused on exploring the fields of evolution, ecology, genetics, and neurobiology. Review of applications will start immediately until the positions are filled. If you are interested in applying for one of the field assistant positions as described above, please apply (including your CV) by latest 31st August 2014 to: Carol Gilsenan Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics Max-Planck-Institute for Ornithology Eberhard-Gwinner-Strae, House 7 82319 Seewiesen Germany or via email to firstname.lastname@example.org Carol Gilsenan via Gmail
Dear colleagues I am pleased to announce this year’s morphometrics course from the University of Manchester. This year’s course will run in the six weeks from 3 November to 12 December 2014. The course information can be found on the following we site: http://bit.ly/15PE0No Course content: * Data acquisition: the kinds of data and the equipment used to collect them. * Definitions of size and shape * Geometric methods to characterise shape from a configuration of landmark points (Procrustes superimposition) * Statistics of variation, scatter plots, basic multivariate statistics * Principal component analysis * Measurement error and outliers * Shape transformations and ‘warping’ — the thin plate spline * Analysis of outline shapes * Distinguishing between groups (taxonomy, clinical diagnosis, etc.) * Allometry and size correction * Influence of external factors on shape (ecomorphology, dose-response studies) * Symmetric forms and measurement of asymmetry. * Morphometric inferences on developmental processes * Morphological integration and modularity * Genetics of shape: analyses of resemblance between relatives, QTL analyses. * Phylogeny: reconstructing the evolution of shape Practice examples: As far as possible, practical exercises are provided to accompany the course content. These practice exercises consist of data sets and explanations on how to run the respective analyses using the MorphoJ software (http://bit.ly/177ZDoT). Participants who already have their own data are encouraged to use those and to discuss them as part of the course. I hope there will be a bit of a ‘workshop’ feel to the course unit. Group work: Participants will work in small groups to prepare web presentations of possible morphometric studies (wikis prepared by the groups). This activity stimulates discussion and provides a broad overview of the broad range of questions that can be addressed with morphometric methods. The fee for the course is GBP 320.00. All prospective participants need to pre-register for the course. The deadline for this is the *30 September 2014*. For further details and the pre-registration form, see the course web page: http://bit.ly/15PE0No Best wishes, Chris via Gmail
The Genealogical World of Phylogenetic Networks
BMC Evolutionary Biology